By Kailyn Beckner and Megan Moffitt
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For our project we tried to figure out which Colgate toothpaste was the best out three different kinds. We wanted to see if one of the toothpastes was more effective to keep your teeth clean. We used ceramic tiles to replicate human teeth. We went about this by gathering the different toothpastes: optic white renewal, optic white stain fighter, and optic white advanced. We stained three different ceramic tiles with chocolate, spinach, strawberries, and markers which were all in sections on the tile. Then we left out the ceramic tiles for about thirty minutes to let the stains soak into the tiles. We scrubbed each section for thirty seconds which was a total of two minutes for each tile. Our results told us that there wasn’t a drastic different between the three toothpastes. We noticed small differences between the results of the three tiles. Our hypothesis was wrong because we thought that the toothpaste Colgate recommends to people would be the best. In fact, we continue to wonder why a brand would advertise a certain kind of toothpaste by saying its “better” than others if it’s truly not different. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyT2FuZEklMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Object and Inquiry
For our biology fair project, we tried to figure out which Colgate toothpaste was that best out of three different kinds. In order to tested this, we used porcelain clay to represent human teeth. We stained the clay for 24 hours in diet coke to replicate plaque buildup and decay. The object of our study is the different Colgate toothpastes that we tested, and our inquiry is which Colgate toothpaste removes stains from the porcelain clay the best and which one whitens the clay the most.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVG9ySCUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRmElM0U=[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][vc_column_text]
We think that Colgate Optic White Advanced toothpaste will be the best whitening toothpaste out of the 3 we are testing. We think this because it has the most stars with 4.6 out of 5 and it contains 2% of hydrogen peroxide which is a professionally recommended whitening ingredient. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUldVJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Research Write Up
Kailyn- Some knowledge that I already know about toothpaste is that its purpose is to clean and whiten humans’ teeth. Toothpaste is typically used with water and a toothbrush. There are many different kinds and brands of toothpaste sold in stores. Some are special for whitening their teeth while others clean teeth. Colgate and Crest are the main toothpaste brands that I know of. There are many other kinds that have different purposes but those are the two main. In order to keep clean and heathy teeth, people need to brush their teeth in the morning after they eat breakfast and, in the evening, after they have eaten dinner. You must brush your teeth for at least two minutes to clean them. The purpose of toothpaste is to remove the plaque from people’s teeth. If you don’t clean your teeth, lots of plaque, decay and cavities can be created. Also, if you never brush your teeth, they could possibly fall out and then you would need dentures.
Megan- Some prior knowledge that I already have about toothpaste is that its main goal is to help you scrub away and get rid of all the stain and plaque from things such as food that you have eaten throughout the day. It is very important that you brush your teeth every day at least twice a day so that they stay healthy and white. If you do not do this every day then your teeth might rot, and they would become very unhealthy. Toothpaste can come in many forms and brands which are all a little bit different regarding the taste of each of them. But there is really no real difference in these brands because all their goals are the same, which is to remove plaque buildup, prevent cavities and food debris, and to whiten your teeth. Brushing your teeth and using your toothpaste and toothbrush does not take much time out of your day which is sometimes important to remember when you are in a rush in the morning and forget, or you are too tired to brush your teeth at night.
Why should you brush your teeth daily?
You must brush your teeth every day to keep your teeth healthy, clean, and white. If you don’t brush your teeth, cavities and plaque will start to form. Also, some people have tartar accumulated on their teeth very quickly if they don’t brush often. “Tartar is plaque in a hardened form that is more damaging and difficult to remove.”1 If you want to prevent this, there are anti-tartar toothpastes as well as mouthwashes that help. Brushing your teeth with toothpaste is a helpful way to keep healthy teeth. “Toothpastes contain abrasives, detergents, and foaming agents. Fluoride, the most common active ingredient in toothpaste, is what prevents cavities. Overall, you want to brush your teeth two times daily (morning and evening) so that you have anti-bacteria and nutritious teeth.
What other material could we use to replicate/approximate teeth?
A material that we could use to replicate/approximate teeth is porcelain clay. Porcelain clay the most reasonable material to represent teeth in this experiment. To replicate human teeth, you could also use ceramic tiles. This is a good replicant because it’s a similar material and “feeling” to human teeth. Due to the coronavirus, we aren’t able to get the exact type of clay that we want but we will try our best.
What is the proper way to brush your teeth to keep them the healthiest?
In order to have pretty and healthy teeth, must brush and floss two times a day. Typically, people will brush once in the morning and once in the evening. When you are brushing, “hold your brush at a 45-degree angle against your gumline. Gently brush from where the tooth and gum meet to the chewing surface in short strokes.”2 If you brush your teeth too hard, you can have gum problems, sensitive teeth, and eventually you could maybe loose teeth. While brushing, you must brush all the surfaces of your teeth including the outside and the inside. Use back and forth motions to clean your teeth in the most efficient way. Also, brushing your tongue and roof of your mouth is necessary. This removes any decay-causing bacteria that may exist. Make sure that you brush for a minimum of two minutes. Do not brush for any less amount of time or your teeth will not be heathy, and they won’t remain white. Therefore, you must brush every part of your month and all your teeth so that they are healthy, and no bacteria is created.
What are the differences between three Colgate toothpastes?
There are many kinds of Colgate toothpastes. The five that we decided to include were Optic White Advanced, Optic White Renewal, and Optic White Stain Fighter. All of these are described as whitening and cleansing toothpastes. But each of the toothpastes is a little bit different and has different ingredients. “Optic White Advanced has 2% hydrogen peroxide, which is a professionally recommended ingredient.”3 “Optic White Renewal contains 3% hydrogen peroxide, a professionally recommended whitening ingredient proven to deeply whiten beyond surface stains.”4 “Optic White Stain Fighter Toothpaste removes 6X more surface stains with micro-polishing action”5
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Tools and Materials
- Three different Colgate toothpastes
- Our brains, minds, and eyes
- Computer and websites for research
- Prior knowledge
- Pink and blue markers
- Colgate toothpastes
- Foods like chocolate, spinach, and berries
- Ceramic clay tiles
- Independent variable: different Colgate toothpastes and Porcelain clay tiles
- Dependent variable: the stains and whiteness of the clay tiles
- Control variables: the whiteness of the porcelain clay, white clay tile without diet coke, number of brush strokes we used to brush the tiles, the length of time we brushed, the amount of toothpaste we used on each tile, the amount of time that we soaked the tiles in diet coke, the amount of what that we used to rinse off the tiles, the size of tiles that we used, amount of diet coke
- Control: no toothpaste and no water
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Procedure and Data
February 2nd: On this day, we decided that we were going to work together on the project, and we thought of proposals and other project ideas that we might have had.
February 5th: Today we decided to do our project on Colgate toothpaste, we focused on figuring out which of the three kinds of toothpaste would whiten our teeth the most, which was represented by a stain porcelain clay tile.
February 10th: We began searching for reliable sources that we could use to research our science project. We also thought of questions that we wanted to research that would help us the most with our project.
February 11th: Today we started our research write up and answering all of our questions. We also worked on our prior knowledge section so that we could figure out what we already know about our project.
February 29th: On this way wrote out and finished our research writeup before the checkup day that it was due.
March 3rd: Today we completed our tools and materials which we adapted overtime throughout our project.
March 4th: Today we wrote our hypothesis and figured out what we thought was going to happen in our experiment.
March 5th: On this day we completed our Action Plan and Timeframe to determine when we were going to be working on certain things depending on when they were due.
March 6th: Today we worked on a controlled variable, dependent and independent variables for our project that would be included in the Tools and Materials section in our Lab Report.
March 7th: No work done on project
March 8th: No work done on project
March 9th: Today we focused on planning out project and when we will start the main experiment part of the project.
March 10th: No work done on project
March 11th: On this day we began shopping and looking for porcelain clay on amazon and couldn’t find the right one.
March 12th: We changed our project a little and decided to use porcelain clay instead of dentures. Looked at images of porcelain clay. Mr. Okimoto suggested to us that this would be the best substitution for actual human teeth.
March 13th: Today we edited and printed lab report, research write-up, and journal to turn into Mr. Okimoto for our checkup. On this day, we found out that we would be leaving school for over a month due to the Coronavirus. This caused us to make changes on our project because we were sent home.
March 14th: We did not complete any work on our project today.
March 15th: No work done on project
March 16th: No work done on project
March 17th: Went to home depot to see if they had porcelain clay. They did not have it. Went to target and could not find it but got the different Colgate toothpastes.
March 18th: No work done on project
March 19th: Megan looked again on amazon for the porcelain clay but still could not find any.
March 20th: We did not complete any work on our project today.
March 21st: On this day, we tried to figure out how we were going to change our project.
March 22nd: We did not complete any work on our project today.
March 23rd: On this day, the governor filed a “Stay At Home Order” which put us on lockdown which means we can’t work on our project together or gather all the materials that we need from the store. This made it very difficult to collect the necessary items for our science fair project.
March 24th: We thought about our project and tried to figure out how we were going to do it with the new changes.
March 25th: We continued to think about our project and tried to figure out how we were going to do it with the new changes.
March 26th: We did not complete any work on our project today.
March 27th: On this day, we emailed Mr. Okimoto with our concerns about our project and how we were going to complete it during this difficult time.
March 28th: Today Mr. Okimoto emailed us back saying how he was working on all of these thoughts and concerns and he would reach out to the entire class with the new RLP Addendum.
March 29th: We worked together to figure out all the concerns we had about our project.
March 30th: We did not complete any work on our project today.
March 31st: We did not complete any work on our project today.
April 3rd: On this day, Mr. Okimoto sent the class an addendum which would change our science fair project greatly. Since this happened, we had due dates change and the overall project has drastically changed.
April 4th: Today we were trying to figure out whether we should change our project or turn it into a research project due to the circumstances.
April 5th: On this day, we continued to figure out whether we should change our project or turn it into a research project due to the circumstances.
April 6th: Today Kailyn thought of questions that we might want to ask our teacher during the meeting
April 7th: Today we met with Mr. Okimoto to discuss the new changes that would be happening on our project.
April 8th: On this day, we facetimed and continued discussing how our project would go with the new circumstances that we had to adapt to.
April 9th: We began online shopping to find another type of clay because we could not find porcelain clay or tiles anywhere. We were unsuccessful in this mission to find the different substitution for porcelain tiles.
April 10th: Megan began filling in some of the days of our journal that we might have forgotten to complete and fill out.
April 11th: Megan continued filling in some of the days of our journal that we might have forgotten to complete and fill out.
April 12th: We didn’t complete any extra work on our project today.
April 13th: No work done on project, spring break
April 14th: No work done on project, spring break
April 15th: We did not complete any work on our project today.
April 16th: No work done on project, spring break
April 17th: Kailyn looked throughout her two houses to see if she could find any replacements for porcelain clay tiles.
April 18th: Kailyn had Mr. Beckner cut her three small tile squares from some extra ceramic tiles that they found at their new house.
April 19th: No work done on project, spring break
April 20th: Kailyn dropped off the ceramic tiles to Megan’s house as well as some sandpaper so that she might be able to get the shiny finish off of the three tiles.
April 21st: Today, Kailyn wrote out the procedure and data for our Lab Report and so that Megan knew the steps to complete our project.
April 22nd: On this day, we took a break from working on our Science Fair Project.
April 23rd: Megan began her prepping for the physical experiment.
April 24th: Today Megan did the experiment and followed the procedure and data that Kailyn wrote out.
April 25th: We did not complete any extra work on our project today.
April 26th: We did not complete any extra work on our project today.
April 27th: Today Kailyn worked on the Results and Conclusion as well as Insights and Reflection for our Lab Report.
April 28th: On this day, Kailyn finished working on the Results and Conclusion as well as Insights and Reflection for our Lab Report.
April 29th: We began editing and perfecting our Lab Report, Journal, Research Write up, and Bibliography.
April 30th: We continued editing and perfecting our Lab Report, Journal, Research Write up, and Bibliography.
May 1st: On this day, we perfected the rest of our project and all of our materials and then finally turned it into Mr. Okimoto to finish the assignments. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUHJvJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]
To begin our science fair experiment, we gathered three tiles, three Colgate toothpastes, foods and markers, and a toothbrush. First, we pressed foods like spinach, chocolate, and strawberries onto the tiles in separate sections to see how well the toothpaste would whiten that certain kind of food or material. Also, we used pink and blue markers as well to try and stain all of the porcelain tiles. We did these steps to represent what a human’s teeth would look like after they have just eaten food and are about to brush their teeth. After we put the materials all over the tiles, we let them sit for two hours to let the food soak into the tile a bit. Then after they sat for a while, we began our experiment. Megan started to rinse the toothbrush underwater. After that, she added a teaspoon of the Optic White Renewal Colgate toothpaste to the brush and brushed the first tile for two minutes. Megan spent about thirty seconds brushing each of the four sections on the tile. After that, we gave the tile a cleanse with water to clean all of the remains of toothpaste that possibly were left on the tile. Once we finished the first tile, we began the second tile which was Optic White Advanced toothpaste. Then Megan rinsed the toothbrush under the faucet and added a teaspoon of the second toothpaste to the brush. She began brushing for two minutes for an equal amount of time on each of the sections. After that, we gave the tile a cleanse with water to clean all of the remains of toothpaste that possibly were left on the tile. Megan set the second tile aside with the first one that was already finished. She began to rinse the toothbrush in water for the third time. The third Colgate toothpaste we used was Optic White Stain Fighter toothpaste. We added a teaspoon of the toothpaste to the brush and began brushing for two minutes since that is the common amount of time people usually brush their teeth for. After that, we gave the tile a cleanse with water to clean all of the remains of toothpaste that possibly were left on the tile. Then, we set the third and finally tile aside with the others. We let the three tiles sit for an hour to see if the foods and materials would react to the toothpastes in anyway. Finally, Megan began observing the three tiles to see which one whitened and cleaned off the stains the best. We noticed that certain categories (berries, spinach, chocolate, and markers), affected how clean the tile would get. Some toothpastes worked better for certain categories, but not for the others. See Results and Conclusion for the data that we collected throughout our project. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyRGFuZEElMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]
Data and Analysis
LEFT SIDE – OPTIC WHITE RENEWAL
RIGHT SIDE – OPTIC WHITE STAIN FIGHTER
BOTTOM – OPTIC WHITE ADVANCED [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUmFuZEMlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Results and Conclusion
After our experiment with the three different Colgate toothpastes, the results of this experiment and the data led us to determine that there isn’t a drastic different between the toothpastes. Although Colgate recommends Optic White Advanced because its “better” than their other kinds, we saw no change in the performances between the three tiles. There was small change in the amount of chocolate stain left on the tiles, but the rest of the food and marker stains were pretty much the same. Optic White Advanced toothpaste kept some spots of spinach on the tile while Optic White Renewal left only a single speck of spinach. We think that Optic White Stain Fighter performed the best overall. This means that our hypothesis was wrong, and we were surprised by the results from our experiment. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIySWFuZFIlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Insights and Reflections
The results of this experiment have led us to wonder why there are so many kinds of toothpaste if they all perform the same on our teeth? We think that our project could’ve gone better if we had all the necessary materials needed. If we used a different replicant for human teeth or a different tile that did not have a finish or polish on it, the project would have gotten better results. We think that the polish on the tiles we used affected our results and the amount of stain and food we could get on the tiles. Also, we wonder if setting the foods and markers on the tiles and leaving them out for multiple days would’ve affected the stain. We think that brushing the tiles and using more toothpaste could give us more of the results that we wanted. Although, we tried to make this project as realistic as possible, we made sure we used a normal amount of toothpaste as well as water for two minutes. If we were to complete this experiment again, we would change our replicant for human teeth and we would let our project take more time in general. Overall, we think we did the best that we possibly could with the circumstances that Covid-19 has given us in these crazy and uncertain times. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyQmliJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
TeensHealth from Nemours, “TAKING CARE OF YOUR TEETH.” Last updated January 2015. <https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/teeth.html>. Accessed March 7, 2020.
This source is reliable because it was taken directly from Nemours Children’s Health Care System Website. This is a secondary source.
Colgate, “OPTIC WHITE RENEWAL TOOTHPASTE.” Last updated December 2019. <https://www.colgate.com/en-us/products/toothpaste/ow-renewal>. Accessed February 10th, 2020
This source is reliable because it was taken directly from the Colgate website which is professionally recommended. This is a primary source
Colgate, “OPTIC WHITE ADVANCED TOOTHPASTE.” Last updated December 2019. <https://www.colgate.com/en-us/products/toothpaste/ow-renewal>. Accessed February 10th, 2020
This source is reliable because it was directly from the Colgate website which is professionally recommended. This is a primary source.
Colgate, “OPTIC WHITE STAIN FIGHTER TOOTHPASTE.” Last updated December 2019. <https://www.colgate.com/en-us/products/toothpaste/ow-stain-fighter>. Accessed February 10th, 2020
This source is reliable because it was taken from the Colgate website which is professionally recommended. This is a primary source.
Home Depot, “CERAMIC TILES.” Last updated in 2016. <https://www.homedepot.com/p/Daltile-Restore-Bright-White-3-in-x-12-in-Ceramic-Wall-Tile-12-sq-ft-Case-RE15312HD1P2/302872669>. Accessed April 15th, 2020
This source is reliable because it the official Home Depot Website and over 1 million people have visited this website in the past month. This is a primary source.
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