Fast Freezing Oceans

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By Anna and Eva Baklinski

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Abstract

Introduction
For our science project we are asking questions we are going to answer through research. Our questions are, how does the moon create tides? And why does the ocean not freeze? Our purpose for this research project is to learn something new and teach others something they didn’t know.

Problem Statement
The thesis we are answering is how does the moon creates tides and why does the ocean not freeze?

Procedures
For our procedure we used a journal to track what we did every day we worked, in our procedure and data section we explained how we researched and had some charts and graphs.

Results
Our results were that the moon’s gravitational pull is the reason that tides are made and when the moon is farther away from the earth the tides are lower because there isn’t as much gravitational pull. The ocean doesn’t freeze because it is such a big body of water that has so much movement and circulation moving different temperatures of water to different places. The other reason is, the ocean is salt water so it has a higher freezing point.
Conclusion
Our conclusion is that we did answer our questions and it contributes to others because it teaches them how the moon creates tides and why the ocean can’t freeze.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyT2FuZEklMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Object and Inquiry

I have always wondered how the moon causes tides and why the ocean doesn’t free. For this research project, I am setting out to gather data on how the moon causes the Earth’s tide and if the tides affect the oceans ability to freeze. My object is the different levels of the tide and the different levels of freezing points. My inquiry is what causes the changes in tides and what causes the ocean not to freeze.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVG9ySCUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRmElM0U=[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][vc_column_text]

Thesis

My first thesis is that the moon, sun, and other planets have a gravitational pull on the water and as the moon, earth, and other planets go through their orbits, they pull the water in different spots to end in different levels of water. My second thesis is that the tides keep moving during the day and night, and the ocean has warm and cold tides which prevents the ocean from becoming cold enough to freeze.  [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUldVJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Research Write Up

Prior Knowledge
So far, I have very little knowledge on this topic. I know the moon orbits the Earth and has a gravitational pull on the oceans. I know that the tides are different heights at different times of the day. Also, the ocean has water animals in it that get exposed when the tide gets low. Some questions I have are, do the different phases of the moon affect how much gravitational pull on the ocean? Does the moon pull the ocean more or less in the different places of the Earth? How do people predict the times of the tide levels? These are the few things I know about the ocean. The ocean has different layers and different depths. The sun can only shine a certain amount into the ocean. There are warm and cold currents. The ocean is salt water. The ocean has tides and waves. Animals live in the ocean and plants do as well. The oceans bottom consists of rock and sand. This is all the knowledge of the ocean I know.

Research Summary
Tides are caused by changes in the gravitational pull of the other heavenly bodies. All the planets influence the tides, but the moon has the biggest because of how close it is to the earth. The sun is the second due to its size, and Mars, Jupiter, and Venus are third.1The highest tides occur during full moons and new moons when the earth, sun, and moon are all in alignment. The lowest tides occur during a half moon when the moon and the sun are at right angles to each other.2Since orbits are elliptical, tides are affected by where bodies are in the elliptical orbits.3 We can compare the effects of the different heavenly bodies using Newton’s law of gravitational force. “Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun, and the rotation of the Earth.”4 “Tides are very long-period waves that move through the oceans in response to the forces exerted by the moon and sun. Tides originate in the oceans and progress toward the coastlines where they appear as the regular rise and fall of the sea surface.”5 Why do lakes freeze but oceans at the same latitude don’t? There are many causes for this, the first one is the saltiness of the ocean water, “ocean water is saltier than fresh water and the freezing point of water is lower the saltier the water therefore ocean water freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water.” 6 “The second cause for this is convection, as water gets colder its density increases(until 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit) therefore, as water at the surface gets colder it sinks to a lower depth. Because lakes are smaller bodies of water, the entire lake can get cold until there is no temperature gradient with depth and that makes water not sink in lakes. Once the surface temperature passes 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit, the density starts to decrease the water stays at the surface and gets even colder and turns to ice.”7

Refined Knowledge and Questions

Does the phase of the moon affect how much gravitational pull? How much of a percent is each planets and the suns gravitational pull have on the tides? How does the tides effect sea and human life on earth? What would happen with the tide if the moon were the only gravitational pull on the earth? Do tides prevent the ocean from freezing because the water keeps moving? Do different temperatures of currents affect the speed of tides? Does the amount of movement in the ocean affect the oceans temperature and ability to freeze? How would it affect life if the ocean did freeze? What would make the ocean freeze? How would it affect the oceans if there were no currents? What would change in the ocean if it wasn’t salt water? Does the moon affect the currents and if so how? [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVGFuZE0lMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Tools and Materials

  • Research Books
  • Laptop
  • Grampa
  • Mr. O
  • My Brain
  • Tide Charts
  • Paper
  • Pencil
  • Coloring Materials
  • Desk 

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Procedure and Data

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Journal

In this section we will be outlining our project from beginning to end including all the days we worked on it. Our first day of the project we were not planning on working on it together, we both had different ideas. On February 3rd 2020 we came up with our project proposal ideas. Eva was researching how the moon creates tides and I, Anna was researching why the ocean doesn’t freeze. After seeing how our projects could connect we decided to combine them together into one research project. On February 5th we worked on our object and inquiry after we combined our projects and turned it in on February 7th. On February 9th we started our research write up and had great inspiration for our project. On February 14th we had our research write up check that we got great ideas from, we then turned in our research write up on March 2nd and also started our tools and materials. On March 4th we turned in our tools and materials, and on March 4th we came up with our thesis. Then on March 6th we decided our action plan, after a couple of days on March 12th we worked on our procedure and data, then had a check up on March 13th. On March 25th we had a research check up and made a plan for the next few weeks, and then Mr. Okimoto changed the due dates for certain things. On April 3th we had our 1st project check-up. We worked on our whole project on April 14th and April 18th during Easter break. Our 2nd project check-up was on April 28th and put the finishing touches in. We turned our whole project in on May 1st 2020. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUHJvJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]

Procedure

I first started out by picking my project to my interest. I decided to do it with my sister Anna. We got started and made a schedule for who was going to do what and the timing. We decided to pick 2 questions and combine them, the first question is how the moon creates tides, our second question was why does the ocean not freeze? We started out with our object and inquiry. From there we just started trucking along and got through the lab report and the research write-up which describes what we researched and how we researched. After deciding our plan we started our journal which tells what we did each day we worked. We had our first check up after we got settled with the remote learning plan. This changed some things and we had some things taken away so that it made an easier deadline. We then finished our journal and finished up are Bibliography and Abstract. Then had our second check up and finished the project one day before it was due. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyRGFuZEElMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]

Data and Analysis

In this section I will be describing the pictures and graphs for our project. The pictures each have different part in the project so they will not all connect to each other.

Tides:

This picture shows how the gravitational pull of the moon affects its distance to the earth. When the moon gets farther away the tide gets higher and when the moon gets closer to the earth the gets lower. This picture is basically showing the moon in its position at the different levels of tide

Water Temperature:

This picture/graph is representing the oceans heat at different depths, it shows that when you get deeper into the ocean the temperature gets colder. Note the rapid change between 100 and 1,000 meters, the temperature is nearly constant after 1,500 meters of depth. As the ocean gets colder its density increases therefore, as the water at the surface gets colder it sinks to a lower depth preventing for a layer of ice at the top.

This picture represents the warm and cold currents in the ocean. The red arrows show the movement of warm water and the blue arrows show the movement of cold water. There are more red arrows in the middle because the are closer to the equator which is warmer. The ocean is large that currents develop that bring warm water from the tropical areas to the colder areas warming the water. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUmFuZEMlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Results and Conclusion

After the research, I have come to the conclusion that the moon, sun, and other planets have a gravitational pull on the water and as the moon, earth, and other planets go through their orbits, they pull the water in different spots to end in different levels of water. The tides keep the water moving which brings in different temperatures of water and stop the ocean from freezing. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIySWFuZFIlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Insights and Reflections

Eva: The results in this lab led me to think of a couple questions. First of all, what would happen if we had no moon and what animals would get affected? Also how would the Moon could change with the work of moving the tides? It was really cool to look at some really interesting charts and graphs. It has been really awesome and fun and especially doing it together.

Anna: The results of this research project have led me to wonder if my question about the ocean freezing would have been a better question to answer by itself because there are so many details I hadn’t thought of before researching. This lab has made me think of so many more questions about different things that stop the ocean from freezing. One question I had was I wonder if the moon affects the ocean or lakes more? I thought this project was fun working on with a partner and I would love to do a whole nether project just about the ocean. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyQmliJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Bibliography

Gaskell, T.F. World Beneath the Oceans: The Story of Oceanography. The American Museum of Natural History, New York: 1964
Carson, Rachel. The Sea Around Us: Special Edition for Young Readers. Golden Press: New York 1958
Hart-Davis, Adam et.al. Smithsonian Science: The Definitive Visual Guide, DK Publishing, New York: 2016
“Tide.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, March 10, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide.
“What Are Tides?” What are Tides? NOAA, n.d. USA.
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/tides.html
Crow, Michael. Mercer Island. 2020
“Ocean.” Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Accessed May 1, 2020. https://www.dictionary.com/browse/ocean.
Duxbury, Alyn C., and Claudia Cenedese. “Ocean.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., March 21, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/science/ocean.https://www.dictionary.com/browse/ocean.
“Why Don’t the Oceans Freeze?” Science Questions with Surprising Answers. Accessed May 1, 2020. https://wtamu.edu/~cbaird/sq/2013/04/29/why-dont-the-oceans-freeze/.
“Thermocline.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, April 20, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermocline
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