By Isabella Chu and Candace Wong
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We decided to explore the world of mold because we thought that it would help others understand why it’s important to wash our hands. This changed since our first attempt failed, see Lab Report #1 and Journal for more information. When we attempted our project a second time, we still found flaws, but it wasn’t as big of a mistake as attempt #1. For our second attempt, we tested (in order of completed testing) untouched, iPhone 8, Isabella’s spit and Candace’s dad’s spit, laptop keyboard, warm water with soap, wiped down laptop keyboard, wiped down doorknob, wiped down iPhone 8, and Purell. We wanted to compare objects which had bacteria on it with, versus when it was wiped down. However, because of COVID-19, we were limited to our resources. As we mentioned in our insights and reflections, we wanted to use microscopes to examine each kind of bread slice. We think this project could’ve got better if we knew what each kind of mold was called. There were many different colors of mold and we think each of them was a different type. Our science fair project contributes to the decaying/bacteria area. We thought we had a goal, but we realized we decided to explore. [/vc_column_text][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUldVJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Research Write Up
Isabella Chu – Before researching about bacteria, I didn’t know a lot about mold growing on bread. I do know that bread molds overtime, depending on what touches it. I also know that bacteria make mold grow faster, causing the bread to go bad. What makes mold grow on bread fastest? Does each thing that we will be putting on the bread have something in common? Does the type of bread matter?
Candace Wong – Before researching about mold and bacteria, I only knew that mold grew on bread after a while. If someone ate the mold, then they would get sick or a stomachache. If someone’s hands are dirty, then they have more bacteria on them. Will the temperature change the rate of molding?
When we researched mold growing on food, we found out what mold was. Mold is a type of fungus, like a mushroom. But they do not grow from seeds; they grow from spores. Spores are organisms that have one cell, so they don’t need another to reproduce. If the spores fall on damp food, they latch on and starts to grow on it as mold. It not very wise to eat moldy food, especially if someone has an allergic reaction to mold. It is also dangerous to sniff moldy food. Sometimes, if under the correct circumstances, the mold produces a chemical called “mycotoxins”. They are poisonous materials that form on mainly grain and nut crops. There are many of these chemicals and scientists are still discovering more. Aflatoxins are a type of mycotoxin. They can cause cancer and grow mainly on field corn and peanuts. There are some molds that make an exception and are safe to eat, like molds on cheese. Some mold on cheese are safe to eat, but some aren’t. Most molds prefer warmer temperatures to grow with. If the piece of food has preservatives, mold can’t grow as fast on it. There are three main types of bread mold: Penicillium, Cladosporium and black bread. Penicillium appears as fuzzy white, gray, or light blue patches and are used by people to flavor foods, such as blue cheese. It is not dangerous to accidentally eat it only if the person consuming it does not have allergies. However, some cases of cancer or illnesses have been tied with exposure of Penicillium. So, having Penicillium around a person is not recommended. Cladosporium is a dark greenish/blackish mold that can cause sneezing, coughing or wheezing if exposure is prolonged. Again, it is not dangerous accidentally consume Cladosporium if the person does not have allergies. The smell is very distinct and may cause vomiting. Black bread is the most common type of mold that you see. It grows on fruit and vegetables and appears as fuzzy blue or green patches. For most people, eating something with black bread is not lift-threatening, but can cause nausea, indigestion, and vomiting. If the moldy slice of bread is put under a microscope, you can see that there are mushroom-like shapes forming on the surface. If there is a lot of mold on the bread, you can also see the network or the roots of mold that formed under the surface of the food.
Refined Knowledge and Questions
Mold is made from spores in the air which attach to food (bread in our case) and fungi will start growing on the surface. Spores are microscopic, which means that you can only see the spores through a microscope. The fungi will survive on the bread because it breaks down and absorbs the nutrients inside. The more the bread rots, the more the spores grow. There are many species of molds. The most common are Penicillium, Cladosporium, and black bread mold are the most common types of bread molds. Avoiding eating moldy bread is the better option because even though some are harmless, other are not. Some foods don’t grow as much mold on it. Foods containing preservatives won’t have as much mold on them. Leaving refrigerated food outside of the refrigerator will often mold. To protect foods from mold, people will often put plastic wrap around it to prevent mold exposure from spores in the air. Some foods, like cheese, need mold to for it to grow. However, the good mold on the cheese will often be cut off for it to be edible. If the cheese starts growing mold outside of the manufacturing process, then throwing it out would be the best option. Eating bread with visible molding spots can cause respiratory issues. Mold roots can grow quickly and spread through the bread even if you can’t see them, so don’t just eat part of a bread that isn’t moldy while the other part is.
- What makes mold on bread spread the fastest?
- Does the humidity of the air around the bread affect the mold?
- Will the molds look different because of what was touched by them?
- Does the type of organic bread matter?
- If we used whole wheat/grain bread would the results be different?
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Object and Inquiry
For this year’s science project, we’ve decided to do an experiment on how the mold of the bread will vary after applying different things on it. We will use various sources to see if the mold is different after spreading it with various things. The object of our inquiry is bread and mold. Our inquiry is to find out if the mold of the bread changes after rubbing different things with it.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVG9ySDElMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][vc_column_text]
We think that the bread that was touched after coughing would have the most mold.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVGFuZE0xJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Tools and Materials
To find out if bread will mold differently depending on what has touched it, we used 10 slices of Franz’s Buttermilk Bread, a Giraffe Bike, a section of carpet, Candace’s backpack straps, tap water, 10 Ziploc sandwich bags, Germ-x hand sanitizer, the faucet’s handle, a hand towel, Softsoap soap, a door handle, our hands, 8 digital Word Documents, one PowerPoint presentation, our computers, an iPhone 8, and a Computer Keyboard.
Our independent variable are the different substances we are touching the bread with. These include a computer keyboard, an iPhone 8, hand sanitizer, a doorknob, and coughs. It is also the things we are washing our hands with after we touch the dirty objects, including warm water with soap, cold water without soap, and hot water without soap. Our dependent variable is the mold because we are comparing the mold from one bread to another. We will compare the color of the mold and the amount of mold. Our controlled variable is the bread, the bags, and the process before we touched each bread. The process we created was first, we would wash our hands with soap and water. Then, we would rub our hands on the little giraffe bike (as if we were a little kid). Next, we would touch Candace’s backpack straps (as if we were to go to school). Finally, we would rub our hands in a corner of carpet on the floor (as if we were little kids playing on the carpet). [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUGFuZEQxJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Procedure and Data
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First, Isabella created new Word Documents for the project. During Mid-Winter break, Isabella went to Candace’s house to work on the project. We finalized our procedure and how we are going to test the breads. Then, we did exactly how we planned, and it was successful (or so we thought). Our procedure was: to wash our hands with soap and dried them, touch three dirty objects (a Go and Grow Lil’ Rollin’ Giraffe bike, a corner of the carpet floor, and Candace’s backpack straps), do the specific action assigned to the bread, and then touch the bread. We rubbed three dirty objects to that the level of “dirty-ness” is on the same level. For example, for the Keyboard-Bread, Candace washed our hands with soap and dried them, rubbed them on the three objects, then the keyboard, and finally the bread for five seconds. While that was happening, Isabella would hold open the Ziploc Sandwich Bag to prepare for Candace to put the bread inside when she’s done. Candace would put the bread in the Ziploc Bag when she’s done, and Isabella would label it. This repeated (with different variables, of course) for the rest of the experiment, but we switched roles every other time. Our different variables are a computer keyboard, an iPhone 8, hand sanitizer, a doorknob, a series of coughs, warm water with soap, cold water without soap, and hot water without soap. Afterwards, we had time before Isabella’s mom picked her up, so we played Mario Kart 8 Deluxe on Candace’s Nintendo Switch. Isabella and Candace decided to keep the slices of bread at Candace’s house. Every Sunday, Candace took pictures of the slices of bread. The mold started growing in about 3 weeks. After a few days after the three weeks had passed, we realized the mold was growing on the slices that we least expected to. (Also, the mold was spreading fast, so Candace’s parents decided to throw them out.) For example, the bread with the most mold on it was the one labeled “warm water with soap”. We decided to explore why this was happening. Candace’s dad suggested that we didn’t completely dry our hands after washing them, which means that there is water remaining on our hands. He told us that water makes the mold spread faster. Because of this revelation, we decided to do a second try. Read more in “Science Fair Project – LAB REPORT #2”. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyRGFuZEExJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]
Data and Analysis
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Results and Conclusion
The order of the bread that molded first was warm water with soap, hot water without soap, keyboard, cold water without soap, doorknob, unwashed, coughs, iPhone 8, hand sanitizer (Germ-X), and then untouched. If you would like more information, to the PowerPoint “Science Fair Project – PICTURES” for more reference. After experimenting with mold on bread, we realized that our experiment wasn’t very accurate because after washing our hands, we didn’t completely dry them. I researched and found that mold needs water to grow (according to the Building Science Corporation). [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIySWFuZFIxJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Insights and Reflections
We think that this project wasn’t as successful as we wanted it to be. We messed up on the bread because we forgot that moisture was a key component to mold growing. If we did dry our hands completely, we think that this experiment would have been more successful. The bread slices would have a more accurate mold rate. Because this was a failed experiment, we didn’t have the chance to study the mold up close, or in other words, use a microscope. In addition, the mold grew very fast in a few weeks, so Candace’s dad advised her not to go near the bread slices. If we were to do this project again, we would make sure we dried our hands completely, and maybe think of more objects to rub our hands on. Looking back, to us, the three objects don’t have a lot of bacteria. We could add the couch, a chair, or TV remote if we were to do this again. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyTFIyJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_text_separator title=”LAB REPORT #2″ color=”black” border_width=”5″][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyT2FuZEkyJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Object and Inquiry
As seen in the journal, on Saturday, March 7th, 2020, we decided to retest and change the object and inquiry of our experiment. We will continue to explore and compare different molds caused by different objects. The object of our study is still bread and mold. However, our inquiry is to compare the mold between the breads when something is dirty versus when it is wiped down.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVG9ySDIlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][vc_column_text]
Candace thinks that the bread with the most mold will be the laptop keyboard and the one with the least mold will be the bread touched by washed/clean hands. Isabella thinks that the one with the most mold will be the bread touched by the front entrance doorknob. She thinks that the bread with the least mold is the one touched by washed/clean hands. We still think that the bread that was touched by the laptop keyboard would be the one with the most mold. This is because this laptop is Candace’s dad’s and he uses his laptop very often for work.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyVGFuZE0yJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Tools and Materials
To find out if something wiped down would have different mold, we used Lysol Wipes, the front entrance doorknob, Isabella’s cough, Danny Wong’s spit, a sink, a faucet, 10 Ziploc Sandwich bags, our hands, eight digital Word Documents, a PowerPoint document where we put all of our pictures, an iPhone 8, our computers, our hands, Purell hand sanitizer, our phones, our emails, Microsoft Teams, disposable gloves, tap water, the faucet, the faucet handle, a square of Bounty paper towel, 10 slices of homemade bread (water, olive oil, bread flour, sugar, salt, and vegetable oil), Softsoap soap, a cooling rack, Mr. Okimoto’s ideas/tips, our legs, Mario Kart Deluxe 8, a trash can.
Our independent variables are the items that we are touching the bread with. We will substitute these objects during the experiment part of the is project. These include the front entrance doorknob, a laptop keyboard, an iPhone 8, a cough, some spit, hand sanitizer, Lysol wipes, and Softsoap soap. Our dependent variable is still the mold. We are comparing the mold between dirty objects and the same object but wiped down with a Lysol Wipe. Our controlled variables are the disposable gloves, the homemade bread, and the plastic bags. For half of the experiment, our controlled variable was also the Lysol wipes. We would wipe down our items after wards. These include: the laptop keyboard, the iPhone 8, and the front entrance doorknob. This time, we didn’t go through a process of touching this like the last time (see more information in Lab Report #1), instead we used disposable gloves.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUGFuZEQyJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Procedure and Data
Journal spanning both lab reports can be found at the end.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUHJvMiUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRmElM0U=[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]
We decided to restart our bread experiment because we realized that our results weren’t accurate. The breads we touched that we washed our hands before had an enormous amount of mold compared to the unclean objects which we touched. We concluded that when we washed our hands, our hands were still wet when we touched the bread. We think that the moisture caused the mold to grow at a faster rate. On March 7th, 2020, we decided to redo our experiment. Before, we had gone through a process (see Lab Report 1.0 for more specifics) before touching the bread with the objects with our hands, and then the object. The process that we used was that we would wash our hands thoroughly with soap and water, walk over to the Giraffe Bike, Candace’s backpack, and the certain square of carpet.
First, we rubbed our hands where the handles were as if we were little kids. Then we would run our hands along the backpack straps as if we were going to school. Finally, we would go to a corner of carpet and rub our hands as if we This time, we decided to wear disposable gloves and touch the object directly. Unless it involved washing hands, or a cough and spit. Another component that is different is that we used homemade bread that Candace’s dad made. This would explain the uneven bread slices. Our church friend had some extra disposable gloves, so we decided to use those so we wouldn’t put unwanted bacteria on the bread. See Insights and Reflections (below) on why we realized that this wasn’t as good of an idea than we thought it was. Isabella went first. She put on a pair of disposable gloves and took a slice of bread from the cooling rack. She took the bread and immediately put it inside the Ziploc bag. Candace used a Sharpie and labeled it “UNTOUCHED”. Then we took an (Candace’s) iPhone 8 and Isabella, who still had the same gloves on, took a piece of bread and rubbed it all over it. We made especially sure that the bread touched the home button and the screen because that’s probably where the most bacteria is. She put that in a Ziploc bag that Candace was holding open and sealed it with the labeled it “iPhone 8”. Next, Isabella took another piece of bread and she and Candace walked over to the front door. She took the piece of bread and wiped it over the doorknob. We used the outside doorknob because we figured that that would be the side of the door that had the most unwanted bacteria. We thought that it would create better results for our project. After, Isabella used the same gloves (yes, we realize what we did wrong now) and held a new slice of bread with gloves with her hands. She bent her head down and coughed on it a couple of times. Isabella isn’t very good at forcing a cough, so Candace’s dad spit on the bread. (He is Isabella’s godfather and our families are close, so it wasn’t weird) Candace took the same sharpie and labeled it “Isabella’s spit and Candace’s dad’s spit”. Next, Candace’s dad brought his work laptop. Isabella, using the same gloves, took a slice of bread from the cooling rack and swept the bread all over his keyboard. We only made the bread touch the keyboard, so that’s why we didn’t label the bread as “Laptop”, but instead as “Laptop keyboard”. Some of the breadcrumbs did get stuck between the keys, but we got it out. Isabella took off her gloves and threw them away into the trash can (finally). Before Candace put on her gloves, we wanted to finish the washing hands bread. This is because her hands weren’t clean, it was regular because she hadn’t tested anything. In order to conduct a real-life simulation, we used her hands. She washed her hands with warm water and soap. Isabella helped her turn off the faucet using the handle so Candace’s hands would stay clean. Instead of using a dish towel to dry her hands, she used a paper towel to dry most of it off and then fanned her hands to air dry the rest. We made sure it was dry, so we didn’t make the same mistake twice. (See Lab Report #1 or Journal for more details) Candace took a slice of bread from the cooling rack and pressed her hand against the bread. Isabella held open a plastic Ziploc bag and Candace dropped the bread inside. Isabella sealed the bag tightly and labeled it “Warm Water w/ Soap”.
Before we finished the rest of our experiment, we realized that we wanted to change our inquiry. Our original inquiry was to find out whether the mold would change after touching something with our hands and then the bread. (See Lab Report #1 for further details) We decided to change our inquiry to whether the mold would change after wiping the same object down with a disinfectant wipe. We found a container of Lysol wipes, so we decided to use those. We planned to take the same objects but wipe them down. This time, instead of washing our hands, we would use hand sanitizer. We would compare the laptop keyboard with the wiped down version, the front entrance doorknob with the wiped down version, and the iPhone 8 with the wiped down version. After finalizing our plan, Candace put on a new pair of disposable gloves and Isabella got a Lysol wipe to wipe down the Laptop keyboard. She made sure that all the parts of the keyboard were wiped down. Candace took a new slice of bread and swept it over the keyboard. Isabella held open a new Ziploc Sandwich bag and Candace put the bread inside. We sealed the bag and labeled it “Wiped Down Laptop Keyboard” with a sharpie. Isabella grabbed another Lysol wipe from the container while Candace got a new slice of bread. We both walked over to the front door and Isabella opened the door so we could use the outside doorknob. She used her Lysol wipe to wipe down the doorknob as much as she could. Then, Candace took the slice of bread and rubbed it against the handle of the doorknob. Isabella realized she forgot the plastic Ziploc bag, so she ran back to the kitchen, grabbed the bag, and labeled it “Wiped Down Doorknob”. She quickly went back to where Candace was and held the bag open so Candace could put the bread inside. Next, Isabella took a new Lysol wipe to wipe down the iPhone 8. Candace got a new slice of bread rubbed it on the phone. While she was doing this, Isabella had labeled a different Ziploc Sandwich bag as “Wiped Down iPhone 8”. She gave the bag to Candace and she told Isabella that she had to open the bag for her. So, Isabella took the bag back and held it open for her while she slipped the bread inside. Since this was the last object to be wiped down, Candace took off her gloves and threw them away into the garbage can. Then, she got a container of Purell hand sanitizer and put a little bit on her hands. She rubbed her hands together, making sure to get the backside of her hands. Isabella labeled a new plastic Ziploc bag “Purrell” but realizes after it’s spelled “Purell” (Sorry). While she is doing this, Candace is fanning her hands so she can dry the hand sanitizer. Candace takes a piece of bread from the cooling rack and presses her hands against the bread using both sides of her hand. Isabella held the bag open and the bread was placed inside. This concluded the end of our experiment. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyRGFuZEEyJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]
Data and Analysis
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Results and Conclusion
After experimenting the mold on bread, we found out that there are many components to creating a successful project. For example, we need make sure that there isn’t anything that would boost the growth rate of the mold. In our case, we had to make sure that we didn’t have any unwanted moisture on our hands. Our new project still had mistakes, but it seemed more reasonable than our last attempt. In total, we ended up using ten slices of homemade bread. We realized halfway that we could change our inquiry and we decided to take that path. We found some parts of mold that were common, some were different. Just because we restarted our project didn’t mean that we didn’t make any more mistakes. We realize them now. We’ve learned what it takes for scientists to test things. We’re sure that we could do this experiment five more times and still mess up a small part of it. Trying again and again is what it takes to finally complete a project.
Since our dependent variable is to compare the mold that has grown on the bread, the order of the bread that molded first was (1) Front entrance doorknob, (2) Wiped down laptop keyboard, (3) iPhone 8, (4) Isabella’s cough & Candace’s dad’s spit, (5) Untouched, (6) Laptop keyboard, (7) Wiped down iPhone 8, (8) Warm water w/ soap, (9) Purell, and (10) Wiped down doorknob. See our PowerPoint called “Science Fair Project – PICTURES” for the pictures we took and reference. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIySWFuZFIyJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
Insights and Reflections
We think that overall, our project was gross to look at, but it was worth it because we learned a lot from our mistakes during this project. Looking back, we feel as if we could have done more to help make this experiment. For example, instead of reusing the same gloves for some of the breads (so we wouldn’t waste) we would use a new glove for each process. The bacteria on the previous bread might have infected the bread we were testing. We had to reuse the gloves because we had a limited number of gloves. What if there was some sort of bacteria in the air that affected our project? If we did the experiment part of the project in a place where there was air pollution would there be a common mold we find in each of the breads? We also wondered if the bread slices were uneven cause mold to grow faster. Maybe the “rule” is thinner the bread slice, the faster mold grows. Or, the order of the bread that molded first was affected not only by the width, but because we used the ends of the bread loaf as well. In our project, the breads with the end slices were ‘Warm Water w/ Soap’ and ‘Wiped Down Doorknob’. Does the crust of the bread affect the way that the mold grows? Looking at our PowerPoint, it shows that the backside of ‘Warm Water w/ Soap’ and ‘Wiped Down Doorknob’ wasn’t fully covered with mold. Is there another synonym for rubbed that would fit into our project? We wish that there was another word for “rubbed” because we used that word a lot and it was hard to find new words that would fit into our project. We also think that our project would have gone better if we had stayed at school. Due to COVID-19, we were limited to our resources. We had a plan to use Mr. Okimoto’s microscopes to examine the mold more carefully, but we needed to be safer and stay home. We realize that it wouldn’t be safe to breathe in any mold spores in the air, so we were going to do this through the bag. Is there some type of mask that could block out the spores from getting into our bodies? We also weren’t fully aware that it would be dangerous keeping the mold in the house. However, we made sure that we sealed every bag up tightly. We think that we should’ve prepared more and thought about every single step.
The untouched bread was interesting to see mold grow. The picture labeled “Week 2” (taken on March 22 in our Journal and Pictures) for the untouched bread had a huge spot of light green mold with a white ring around it. Why was there a certain spot where the mold started to grow when we didn’t touch it with anything? Even our theory with reusing the gloves wouldn’t be possible because it was the first bread we tested and put into the bag. We don’t remember touching anything with the gloves after we put them on and before we touched the bread. It might have been that when it the gloves were brought over to the house, it was touched by other people’s hands. Or it was because of any bacteria left on the counter. Then maybe that’s how mold grows. However, some of the other breads had grown multiple spots at the same time.
We purposely used the outside of the door because we wanted more bacteria, but if we used the other side, would it affect why we should wash our hands? Which side of an object do we need to pay attention to more? We are guessing this is what our inquiry would be if we if we decided to measure both sides of objects. Another thought we had was that on the picture taken on March 22nd (Week 2; in our Journal and our Pictures), it looked like some sort of air bubble of mold. There was a big patch of mold which seemed to be outlined in dark gray mold. It seemed kind of like a clear mold, unless the mold had attached to the bag itself, and create a bubble-like effect. On March 29th, (Week 3; in our Journal and Pictures) the mysterious clear-ish mold had grown darker. Instead of an outline of dark gray, the entire patch of mold was dark gray, and the other parts of the bread had grown ghost white. We wonder if using the microscope could help us identify the mold. However, it would be very dangerous to breathe in this mold. Can mold enter our bodies other than breathing it in?
We were also wondering whether to get the backside of the iPhone 8. Just like the doorknob, we wanted the bread to touch the parts with the most bacteria so we would have more interesting mold. We purposely made it touch the screen and the home button because they were the parts which had the most contact. We mentioned that our inquiry would change if we decided to measure both sides of objects (bullet point above). Would this question be a better question to ask? What would’ve happened to our project? Again, our inquiry would change because we would be finding out whether one side of an object is cleaner than the other. We should focus on cleaning and disinfecting certain parts of an object, especially in times like these.
For the bread with Isabella’s cough and Candace’s dad’s spit, we were wondering if there would be a certain spot of mold that was different from the rest. We are guessing that this did not happen because spores of mold spread through the entire bread, the part that was spat on wouldn’t be able to be seen on the surface, but inside the bread. If we cut the bread in half lengthwise, would we see different results?
Would our results be much different if we used one of our computers rather than Candace’s dad’s? What if we didn’t just take the bacteria from the keyboard, but also the screen and the backside? This also goes back to what would’ve happened if we measured the backside of objects. Another idea would be to compare our computers with his computer or compare Candace and Isabella’s computer. We mentioned this in the reflections for the ‘Front entrance doorknob’ and the ‘iPhone 8’. We used Candace’s dad’s computer because we think that he uses it the most. The laptop we used was his work computer.
The bread that we touched after we washed our hands was one of the end slices of the bread. It was the only bread with one color of mold. This color we described as light green in our Journal. How come this was the only bread with one color? The backside of this bread was also interesting. As mentioned before, the breads that were the end slices weren’t all the way covered up with mold. It was still the regular/original color of the bread.
The wiped down keyboard was interesting because it was one of the first ones to sprout mold. We still aren’t sure why the wiped down version on the keyboard grew mold before the regular keyboard. How come the wiped down keyboard grew moldy first? Why was there darker mold on the wiped down keyboard than the regular keyboard? We think that it would have been interesting to see the comparison between this through a microscope. We also found that there was the same black mold on both keyboards. That might have been the 0.01% of germs left (probably not).
The wiped down doorknob was one of the end slices as well. We’re not sure if this affected the project, but it was the last bread to mold (March 24th in our Journal). It might have been because we wiped it down, but then the wiped down keyboard was the second bread to mold first. Was this because of the moisture from the wipe? How come the wiped down doorknob didn’t mold as fast even though we wiped both? In the pictures we took, the first spot of mold was the bottom right corner. It seemed like that was the only spot of mold that just got bigger and bigger. The backside of the wiped down doorknob barely had any mold. It looked like it was a bit moldy because it spread from the front to the back.
The wiped down iPhone 8 was one of the more reasonable breads. It was bread number seven to mold, which makes sense because it took a few days to mold after the regular iPhone 8. What did we do differently compare to the wiped down keyboard and the wiped down doorknob? Something that we could do differently is count the number of swipes we used while wiping the object. Does force matter when wiping an object with a wipe?
The “Purell” bread was the second to last bread to mold. This is impressive and surprising because we’ve always been told that hand washing is more effective, but in this case hand sanitizer killed more bacteria. But we know this is probably because we made some sort of mistake during our experiment. What was the mistake that we made? Was it because we made the same mistake of not drying our hands completely? [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIySm91cm4lMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” border_width=”5″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
February 7th, 2020: Isabella created Word Documents for the Bibliography, Research Write-Up, Anticipated Questions, the actual Science Fair Report, and Journal.
February 8th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 9th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 10th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 11th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 12th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 13th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 14th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 15th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 16th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 17th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 18th, 2020: We did the experiment part of our project and took a picture. See picture titled “Day of Experiment”.
February 19th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 20th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 21st, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 22nd, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 23rd, 2020: Candace took a picture of the bread slices for updates. We decided to take pictures every Sunday because there wouldn’t be a noticeable change within the week. See picture titled “5 days later: Week 0”.
February 24th, 2020: Isabella created the Word Document for the
February 25th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 26th, 2020: Ash Wednesday. Did not work on our project
February 27th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 28th, 2020: Did not work on our project
February 29th, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 1st, 2020: Finished the Research Write-Up. Candace took a picture of the bread slices. See picture titled “Week 1”.
March 2nd, 2020: Turned in Research Write-Up to Mr. Okimoto.
March 3rd, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 4th, 2020: Isabella finished up the Tools and Materials.
March 5th, 2020: Candace finished up the Hypothesis.
March 6th, 2020: Isabella finished the independent, dependent, and controlled variables.
March 7th, 2020: We noticed that the mold was growing at a fast rate on the bread slices that we washed our hands on. Because of this, we decided to redo the experiment part of this project. Candace’s dad baked bread and we decided to use the bread slices. We decided to change up Object & Inquiry because, in short, we screwed up. (See Lab Report 2.0 Object & Inquiry for details.) Isabella created a new Word Document “Science Fair Project – Lab Report #2”. We decided that Isabella would “be in charge” of this word document and Candace would mostly work on Lab Report 1.0. Isabella decided she would take home the new bread slices. The updates on the new bread will be written by her and the updates on the OG bread slices will be written by Candace.
March 8th, 2020: Isabella took pictures of the new bread slices. Candace took pictures of the OG bread slices. See picture titled “1 day later; Week 0” for the new bread slices.
March 9th, 2020: Isabella worked on the Lab Report 2.0 Object and Inquiry.
March 10th, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 11th, 2020: Isabella finished independent, dependent, and controlled variables (under
March 12th, 2020: Isabella worked on the Lab Report 2.0 and Candace worked on the Lab Report 1.0
March 13th, 2020: Did not work on our project.
March 14th, 2020: Candace and her dad threw out the OG bread slices because it wasn’t safe enough to keep at home anymore. See pictures titled “RIP OG BREAD”.
March 15th, 2020: Isabella and Candace took pictures of the bread. Isabella’s bread had small spots of mold on every single bread except three, which were ‘Purell’, ‘Wiped Down Doorknob’, and ‘Warm Water with Soap’. Isabella found a video source to help research more on this project. (See Bibliography) See picture titled “Week 1”.
March 16th, 2020: Isabella worked on Lab Report 2.0 and found another video source on moldy bread. (See Bibliography)
March 17th, 2020: Did not work on project
March 18th, 2020: Isabella updated the Object and Inquiry from Lab Report 2.0
March 19th, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 20th, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 21st, 2020: Wiped-down laptop keyboard has grown white mold on the edges of the green mold it has.
March 22nd, 2020: Isabella took a picture of the bread. See picture titled “Week 2”.
March 23rd, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 24th, 2020: As of today, all breads finally have mold on them.
March 25th, 2020: Untouched bread has grown a big yellow spot of mold.
March 26th, 2020: Did not work on our project
March 27th, 2020: Laptop keyboard has grown white mold. They are patches all over.
March 28th, 2020: The yellow spot has been covered with green mold on the untouched bread.
March 29th, 2020: Isabella took a picture of the bread. See picture titled “Week 3”.
March 30th, 2020: Purell has grown white mold. Wiped-down iPhone 8 has grown small black dots.
March 31st, 2020: The untouched bread has grown white mold. Isabella checks the bottom of each bread and almost throws up. iPhone 8 has lots of yellow mold under it. Warm water with soap and wiped-down laptop keyboard doesn’t have anything on the bottom; Isabella suspects it’s because they’re the end pieces of the breads. Purell has two nude colored spots on the back with dark gray/green spots in the middle. The bread with the cough and spit has a huge spot of green mold. The mold under the untouched bread is very yellow with many small green dots. It also has a spot of dark green and an area of white mold next to it. It looks like the white mold is being taken over by medium-sized light green clumps. The doorknob bread is very white on the other side with a bunch of random spots of dark gray. The keyboard bread has one medium-sized spot of very dark grey and a weirdly curved triangle of light green. The wiped-down bread had lots of light green mold all over it.
April 1st, 2020: Did not work on our project. APRIL FOOLS! The breads seem to have either grown greener or more covered in mold.
April 2nd. 2020: Skin colored mold on the Purell bread has spread to the bottom crust.
April 3rd, 2020: Did not work on our project
April 4th, 2020: As of today, the untouched bread has grown more yellow.
April 5th, 2020: Isabella took a picture of the bread and sent it to Candace. The white on the untouched bread looks like foam. They are medium-sized spots on the left side. See picture titled “Week 4”.
April 6th, 2020: Did not work on our project.
April 7th, 2020: Checked in with Mr. Okimoto on our project at 1:10. Isabella worked on Procedure and Data for Lab Report 2.0.
April 8th, 2020: Did not work on our project.
April 9th, 2020: Holy Thursday. When Jesus broke the bread and gave it to his apostles. You might be wondering, what does this have to do with our project? Well, our project is on bread, and a piece of the Wiped-down keyboard bread has broken off. (See what I did there?)
April 10th, 2020: Good Friday. Did not work on our project.
April 11th, 2020: Holy Saturday. Did not work on our project.
April 12th, 2020: EASTER SUNDAY! HAPPY EASTER! Isabella took a picture of the bread slices. See picture titled “Week 5”.
April 13th, 2020: Isabella worked on bits and pieces of both Insights and Reflections. She also worked on the Procedure and Data for Lab Report 2.0.
April 14th, 2020: Isabella worked on the Procedure and Data and Insights and Reflections for Lab Report 2.0.
April 15th, 2020: Isabella’s mom makes her decided to throw the bread away on Thursday, April 16th, 2020 because she and Candace would turn in the project early by Friday, April 17th, 2020 to Mr. Okimoto for extra feedback.
April 16th, 2020: Isabella worked on Lab Report 2.0 (Procedure and Data & Insights and Reflections). Isabella threw away the bread slices because it was getting dangerous (individual pictures). She also created a PowerPoint Document “Science Fair Project – PICTURES” where she put all the pictures taken throughout the experiment.
April 17th, 2020: Isabella hears the garbage truck come by and take the bread. Candace and Isabella work on all the Documents as a wrap up. We also called each other to discuss more on our plan. We decide to edit our work further so we will turn it in tomorrow morning instead.
April 18th, 2020: Isabella and Candace work on their own Lab Reports (1.0 & 2.0) and help each other with ideas and editing. Isabella shares “Lab Report #1”, “Lab Report #2”. “Journal”, “Pictures”, and “Research” to Mr. Okimoto. She also sends a message through Microsoft Teams “Science Fair Projects with Partners – Isabella and Candace” asking Mr. Okimoto if he could give us feedback if he had time.
April 19th, 2020: Isabella checked up on the documents for any new edits or feedback.
April 20th, 2020: Mr. Okimoto replies to our message to him through Microsoft Teams. Candace helps us sign up for our project check-up for Friday, at 1:10.
April 21st, 2020: Did not work on our project.
April 22nd, 2020: Did not work on our project.
April 23rd, 2020: Did not work on our project.
April 24th, 2020: Isabella and Candace join a Microsoft Teams call with Mr. Okimoto to check on our project website.
April 25th, 2020: Did not work on our project
April 26th, 2020: Did not work on our project
April 27th, 2020: Did not work on our project
April 28th, 2020: Did not work on our project
April 29th, 2020: Isabella worked on the Abstract.
April 30th, 2020: Isabella worked on the Abstract.
May 1st, 2020: Deadline to turn in our project (3:00pm). [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyQmliJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” border_width=”5″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]
“What are Food Molds – Are Molds Dangerous?” What’s Cooking America. March 1st, 2020. https://whatscookingamerica.net/Q-A/Mold.htm
This source is reputable because the subtitle says, “Some of the following information is from the United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Photo courtesy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).”
“Mold Terrarium” Exploratorium. March 1st, 2020. https://www.exploratorium.edu/science_explorer/mold.html
This source is reputable because it shows a step-by-step way you can experience growing mold on food
Cook, Maria. “Different Kinds of Bread Mold”. Sciencing. April 11, 2018. https://sciencing.com/mold-grow-cheese-5384755.html
This source is reputable because it has a clean fact record for science information and educational news.
Dilonardo, Mary Jo. “Can you eat the ‘clean’ part of moldy bread?” Mother Nature Network. September 21st, 2018. https://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/stories/can-you-eat-clean-part-moldy-bread
This source is reputable because it repeatedly quotes the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
McCulloch, Marsha. “Is It Safe to Eat Moldy Bread?” Healthline. February 22nd, 2019. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/can-you-eat-bread-mold
This source is reputable because it is medically reviewed and is evidence-based.
Science Insider. “Never Eat the ‘Clean’ Part of Moldy Bread” YouTube. Published September 18th, 2018. Accessed March 15th, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ro8sPOgCBg
This source is reputable because the narrator gave an example of what happened to an elderly couple who drank moldy soup. There is no bias-ness and instead states facts.
Brainiac. “What Actually Happens to Your Body When You Eat Mold?” YouTube. Published September 20th, 2019. Accessed March 16th, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAlDkHgCksc
This source is reputable because it shows cause and effects to what will happen if you eat mold. It also shows examples of different dates put on packages: sell by dates, best before dates, use before dates, and expiration dates.
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