Read Between the Lines

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By Luke Ritter

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Object and Inquiry

In this experiment I will set out to discover whether the type font affects how fast someone reads it. The object of my inquiry is a person’s reading speed. My inquiry is how does the font of a text affect how fast someone reads it. [/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUldVJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Research Write Up

Prior Knowledge

There are many different types of fonts. You should always read in good light. Sans-serif and serif are very different to read. I sometimes don’t notice weather writing is serif or sans-serif. Since I enjoy reading, I find font styles interesting, but I do not know much about them. I have a few questions about my study. Sans-serif serif 

Research Summary

Researchers Bernard, et.al., were trying to figure out whether the type font and size affects how fast someone reads. Their research shows that “14-point fonts were found to be more legible, promote faster reading, and were preferred to the 12-point fonts. Second, at the 14-point size, serif fonts tended to support faster reading. Serif fonts, however, were generally preferred less than the sans serif fonts.”[1] In my study I will be following this study’s procedure but using paper as my medium.

This article informed me that there are several thousand different type fonts. I also learned that there are three major type font families “roman, italic, and black letter”.[2]

Here is some information I extracted from this article. “Sans Serif (a.k.a. Gothic or Grotesque) type forms made their first appearances around 1815-1817.”[3] I also learned, “The earliest forms of sans and slab typefaces tended to be heavy, often monolithic, display faces, but there quickly evolved a wide range of styles.”[4] 

[1] Bernard, Michael & Chia, Hui & Liao, Melissa & Mills. (2001). M.M.: The Effects of Font Type and Size on the Legibility and Reading Time of Online Text by Older Adults. CHI ’01 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2. 10.1145/634067.634173. <http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.102.8305&rep=rep1&type=pdf>.

[2] Warren E. Preece and James M. Wells. Typography. Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. June 06, 2019. < March 02, 2020. <https://www.britannica.com/technology/typography>.

 

[3] Phinney, Thomas. “Sans Serif: Gothic and Grotesque”Typography. Showker, Inc., TA. Showker Graphic Arts & Design. Retrieved 2 march 2020.

 

[4] Phinney, Thomas. “Sans Serif: Gothic and Grotesque”Typography. Showker, Inc., TA. Showker Graphic Arts & Design. Retrieved 2 march 2020.

 

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Tools and Materials

I will be using the fonts Georgia, Times New Roman, and Arial. I will also be using a Computer, passages from the gospel of Luke, the participants, a timer, a printer. My independent variable is the type font of the text. My dependent variable is the reading speed. My controlled variables are the age of the contestant, the time of day, the lighting, the temperature of the room, the author.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUGFuZEQlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Procedure and Data

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Journal

Due to the Covid 19 I was unable to work on my project from the dates 3/11 – 4/24, but I was able to finish up my experiment on the dates 4/26 4/27. And I worked on typing this out on these dates 4/28 and 4/29.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyUHJvJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner][vc_column_text]

Procedure

  1. I got all my materials together.
  2. I told my participants to sit a certain distance from the papers I presented to them.
  3. I told them to read it as fast as they could.
  4. I timed them as they read.
  5. I repeat steps 2-4 for each participant.

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Data and Analysis

Here is the data my studies produced:

 

(time in seconds)

TEST PAPER ARIAL DID THE PARTICIPANT DICIPHER THE RIGHT WORDS GEORGIA DID THE PARTICIPANT DICIPHER THE RIGHT WORDS TIMES NEW ROMAN DID THE PARTICIPANT DICIPHER THE RIGHT WORDS
PARTICIPANT # 1 23.17 17.37 yes 20.62 yes 18.76 no
PARTICIPANT # 2 42.07 33.15 yes 25.76 yes 17.05 no
PARTICIPANT # 3 33.05 37.66 yes 40.03 yes 53.70 yes
PARTICIPANT # 4 20.83 19.32 yes 19.73 yes 25.48 yes
PARTICIPANT # 5 17.50 16.23 yes 15.83 no 16.46 no

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Results and Conclusion

I didn’t really have a clear conclusion. Maybe if I had larger pool of people to draw from I could have had a more precise conclusion.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIySWFuZFIlMjIlM0UlM0MlMkZhJTNF[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Insights and Reflections

If I had a larger amount of people at a more precise reading level I probably would have a clearer result. Now that I know the whole procedure I could do the same project again with more people. I believe that if I had more people the results would have been Times New Roman as the most legible Georgia as the second most legible and Arial as the least legible.[/vc_column_text][vc_raw_html]JTNDYSUyMGlkJTNEJTIyQmliJTIyJTNFJTNDJTJGYSUzRQ==[/vc_raw_html][vc_separator color=”black” el_width=”80″ css_animation=”none”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Bibliography

Bernard, Michael & Chia, Hui & Liao, Melissa & Mills. (2001). M.M.: The Effects of Font Type and Size on the Legibility and Reading Time of Online Text by Older Adults. CHI ’01 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2. 10.1145/634067.634173. <http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.102.8305&rep=rep1&type=pdf>.

Phinney, Thomas. “Sans Serif: Gothic and Grotesque”Typography. Showker, Inc., TA. Showker Graphic Arts & Design. Retrieved 2 march 2020.

Warren E. Preece and James M. Wells. Typography. Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. June 06, 2019. < March 02, 2020. <https://www.britannica.com/technology/typography>.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]